Sony CSL 茂木 健一郎氏の研究「脳の意識と偶有性について」
Published on 07.07.2016
2,112 viewsScience & Technology
- The Contingent brain Ken Mogi i Sony Computer Science Laboratories kenmogl qualla manifesto com
- Alchemy Lack of understanding of first principles Forerunner to modern chemistry Pieter Brueghel the Elder (1525-1569) An Alchemist at work, mid 16th cent.
- Brain Science Lack of understanding of first principles Forerunner to the science of consciousness in the future? Brain Research Institute The Modern Alchemist at work
- Conventional forms of knowledge not sufficient to explain qualia? Mary in the black and white Frank Jackson box F. Jackson "Epiphenomenal Qualia" Philosophical Quarterly, 32 (1982), pp. 127-36
- Qualia as the hard problem of consciousness. Philosophical zombies The Conscious Mind In Search of Fundamental Theory David Chalmers DAVID J. CHALMERS
- Neural correlates of conscious experience (qualia) (sensu Francis Crick and Christof Koch) neural correlates Neural Firings Qualia What are the first principles?
- In approaching the neural correlates of consciousness, response selectivity has been the de facto central dogma Namely (Simple version) When the activity of a neuron selective to a particular stimulus property is invoked, the (conscious) perception of that property is invoked (sometimes referred to as the neuron doctrine General form hen the spatio-temporal pattern of neurons selective to a particular stimulus property is generated, the conscious perception of that property is invoked
- The neuron doctrine First dogma a description of that activity of a single nerve cell which is transmitted to and influences other nerve cells, and of a nerve cell's response to such influences from other cells, is a complete enough description for functional understanding of the nervous system Fourth Dogma just as physical stimuli directly cause receptors to initiate neural activity, so the active high-level neurons directly and simply cause the elements of our perception. Barlow, H. (1972) Single units and sensation: A neuron doctrine for perceptual psychology? Perception 1,371-394.
- I argue here that the concept of response selectivity, although useful in analyzing data from single unit recording to fMRI, is ultimately inadequate in providing the first principles behind the origin of consciousness. In fact, overcoming the experimental and theoretical abuse of response selectivity might be the single most important obstacle to be overcome in consciousness studies
- The immediacy hypothesis he phenomenological contents of a subject at a particular specious moment determined by, and only by, the properties of physical properties of the brain that
- Critique of response selectivity based on the immediacy hypothesis (1) Response selectivity can be established only through the analysis by an external observer. The subject cannot be immediately aware that the particular firing pattern of the neurons in his brain is selective to, e.g., a rose Subject Rose Aha! That neuron. is selective to Rose! Observer
- Critique of response selectivity based on the immediacy hypothesis (2) Response selectivity is established in essence as a statistical property The selectivity to a bar of certain orientation can be empirically established only by the exposure to and comparison with the activities invoked by bars of different orientations. Such a statistical property is not immediately available for the subject at a particular psychological moment, and cannot constitute the immediate cause of the phenomenological experience Response of Neurons (Spikes per second) Stimulus SNI angle of the bar
- Due to the statistical nature and dependency on the third-person viewpoint of response selectivity, it is not tenable as a first principle to explain the origin of consciousness We need an alternative idea
- From Mach to Einstein. From philosophy to science Ernst Mach (1838-1916) Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
- Mach s principle (as restated by Hermann Bondi and Joseph Samuel An isolated body in otherwise empty space has no inertia Local inertial frames are affected by the cosmic motion and distribution of matter. Inertial mass is affected by the global distribution of matter. If you take away all matter, there is no more space The theory contains no absolute elements.
- Mach's ideas inspired Albert Einstein to formulate the theory of relativity inertia originates in a kind of interaction between bo Albert Einstein, in his letter to Ernst Mach, 25th June 1923
- Mach s principle in perception The phenomenological properties of the mind of a subject at a particular specious moment is determined by, and only by, the mutual relation between the neural activities in the subject' s brain at that particular moment
- Instance of Mach's Principle applied to perception In order to see the color red, it is necessary, but not sufficient, that a group of neurons in area V4 With the selectivity to this particular color (in the Context of Color Constancy) gets activated. The Whole pattern of neural firings causally Connected by synaptic interaction starting from the retina, continuing on through the LGN, V1, V2, up to V4 contributes to the quale of red which is consciously perceived by the subject
- Mach's Principle in Perception visual qualia Qualia are coded in the mutual relationship between neural firings 10 4 synapses per neuron
- Subjective time and physical time In a model adapting the response selectivity in explain the origin of consciousness, the relation between the physical and psychological time is easy. The pattern of neural firing selective to a particular property Invoked at the physical time t gives rise to the quale pertaining to that property at that moment ty T
- Subjective time under Mach s principle When we adapt Mach's principle, things become different. We need to consider the whole history of the sequence of neural activities from the early sensory areas to the higher sensory areas. The finite passage of physical time (e.g. ~100ms When you coniSder the latency for IT needs to be compressed" into a moment of psychological time. There is a many to one mapping between the physical time and the psychological time t t 1, 2, 131
- physical and psychological time dt-0 dt dt-0 dt-0 100 ms in physical time a moment in physical dT-0 psychological time time t dt-0 psychological time Principle of Interaction Simultaneity Mogi, K. Response Selectivity, Neuron Doctrine, and Mach's Principle. in Riegler, A. & Peschl, M (eds. Understanding Representation in the Cogni- tive Sciences. New York: Plenum Press. 127-134 (1999)
- The duration (la durée) Henri Bergson
- And now for something completely different BBC
- One of the most important functions of the brain is to predict the future. However, our Cognitive systems are limited in capacity and there are limits to what we can predict
- THE BLACK SWAN The 1 mpact of the HIGHLY IM PROBABLE Nassim Nicholas Taleb
- Black Swan
- con tin, gen cy 1 HE (a) An event (as an emergency) that may but is not certain to OCCur (b) Something liable to happen as an adjunct to or result of something else (Merriam-Webster dictionary)
- Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index Annual Mean 5-year Running Mean E .2 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
- We are living in a increasingly unpredictable and opaque world of contingencies
- The Situation Room Photo (1st May 2011) reveals the unrestrained action of doing justice" by the world's superpower
- World's 2nd largest economy defies the authority of Nobel Prize
- Julian Assange of Wikileaks reveals the dark side of governments even when they are "democratically" elected and organized
- Mark Zuckerberg of facebook rides on a wave of mismanagements, lll-judgements, debacles and fiascos to make his brainchild facebook gro
- How does the brain deal with contingencies (unpredictability encountered in life?
- The human brain is a small world network, a mixture of regular short- distance) and irregular long-distance) connections
- "small-world" network. Regular Small-world Increasing randomness Random
- Visualization of white matter (axon) pathways by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) (b) (a) (d) (c)
- ao 0.356 nm. regular small world network contingency random
- dable Contingency: Bubble and bust
- South Sea Shares Transfer Books Closed 1000 Aug 18 Bubble Act Enforced 900 Aug 24 4th Money Subscription 800 May 19 700- Conversion Terms Announced for Annuitants une 17 600 3rd Money Apr 14 Subscription 1st Money 500 Subscription Mar 21 3 400 1st Passage of Act 300 Authorizing Refunding 200 Apr 29 2nd Money Subscription 100 Fe Date in 1720 Time course of the South Sea bubble in 1720 From Garber 1990) 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100
- WW1,000, end of month 40 35 Nikkei 225 Stock Average 30 25 20 15 1989 90 91 92 Source: BANK oF JAPAN, QUARTERLY BULLETIN, Aug. 1993, at 9. Time course of bubble economy bust in Japan 93
- Financial crisis in Greek Currency crisis in Euro zone Increased volatility in world economy Greece Increased connectivity leads to increased uncertainty
- Local network 2 Local network 1 Gomputation predictable and certain in each local network. Local networks don't "know" what the other networks are "doing" Global computation becomes unpredictable (contingency)
- It takes a while to have an "aha!"
- Transient long-range synchronization correlates with percept 12 10 8 4 20 400 800 -400 30 12 b 10 p 40 a C 20 400 800 -400 Time (ms) Rodriguez et al. (1999)
- Controlled "aha" reveals the brain areas involved Aha! Sentence (Auble et al. 1979 The haystack was important because the cloth ripped Cue: parachute Neural correlates of the "Aha! reaction" Luo et al. 2004. (anterior cingulate cortex, lef lateral prefrontal cortex) The same system is used to recruit cognitive control in a stroop task Recruits control LPE ACC Kerns et al. 2004
- Hidden figures in bi-level quantized images
- Dalmatian Mediterranean Cow Jesus Christ
- Dynamical Adaptability (learning) he perception of contingency partly regular partly random) Perceptual Stability (qualia)
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